How Does Stress and Anxiety Cause Erectile Dysfunction in Men?

circle logo

Written by


Medically approved by

Medically approved by

Maria Jacob

Last updated

How Does Stress and Anxiety Cause Erectile Dysfunction in Men?

Read in 30s

This article aims to discuss anxiety and stress as risk factors for erectile dysfunction (ED). Readers will know about the etiology, symptoms, and treatment of ED induced by anxiety and stress.

What are stress and anxiety, and how are these two different from each other?

Anxiety and stress can cause ED, affecting a man's ability to achieve or maintain an erection. Before understanding the etiologies, let us understand what is erectile dysfunction? Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability to consistently obtain and sustain an erection strong enough to engage in satisfying sexual activity (Salonia, et al. 2021). There are multiple underlying causes of ED. Anxiety and stress are among many other conditions that often lead to ED. Exploring the question "What is erectile dysfunction?" involves understanding the condition where a man has difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection sufficient for sexual activity. If you want to know more about ED, you should read our already-published article titled “Unveiling the Truth: Erectile Dysfunction - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment”. 

Before understanding the mechanism, symptoms, and treatments of anxiety and stress-induced ED, let us first understand anxiety and stress. As per the American Psychiatric Association, anxiety is a normal reaction to stress (APA 2023). The American Psychological Association defines anxiety as an emotion that is characterized by worried thoughts and feelings of tension about something with an uncertain outcome and physical changes like fluctuations in blood pressure (Anxiety 2022). An elevated degree of anxiety is the main symptom of a range of clinical entities known as anxiety disorders. This category includes generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, and particular and social phobias. Stress, on the other hand, is a natural response to life’s challenges, but it can turn harmful when it interferes with daily activities. Stress causes modifications to almost every bodily system, which affects how people feel and act (Stress 2022).

How Do Stress and Anxiety Cause Erectile Dysfunction in Men?

Understanding what causes erectile dysfunction is crucial for developing effective strategies to address the underlying factors and improve sexual health. The connection between anxiety and stress causes ED by impacting the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Anxiety and stress can cause ED, affecting a man's ability to achieve or maintain an erection. Studies have shown a high prevalence of ED in the population with anxiety disorder (Velurajah et al. 2022). Understanding the various erectile dysfunction causes is essential for developing targeted treatment plans tailored to individual factors. Let us understand the relationship between ED, stress, and anxiety using both psychological and physiological factors

Physiological mechanisms: 

Stress and anxiety usually lead to the release of stress hormones, such as cortisol (Thau, et al. 2022). The regular functioning of the nerve system and blood supply to the penis may be disrupted by cortisol. This may make it more difficult to get or keep an erection. Thus, increased cortisol levels can cause ED (Kobori, et al. 2009 and Rahardjo, et al. 2023).

Psychological mechanisms:

Erectile dysfunction is frequently caused by negative emotions, such as anxiety or the fear of not living up to a partner's expectations. Researchers have hypothesized that this results from a weakness in control over ejaculation. Also, men who experience anxiety during sexual activity are likely concerned with their adequacy or performance, and these concerns may divert attention from the pre-orgasmic and pre-ejaculatory sexual sensations (Althof 2006).

Symptoms of sexual performance due to anxiety and stress

Up to 37% of people with ED have been reported to have anxiety disorders (Velurajah et al. 2022). Psychogenic ED can be a cause of anxiety, stress, depression, etc., and on the other hand, ED causes significant emotional and psychological distress in many individuals. 

Symptoms of psychogenic ED may include (Yafi, et al 2016):

  • Sudden onset,

  • Intermittent, variable, or situational function,

  • Decreased sustaining capacity,

  • Strong nocturnal erection,

  • Strong response to phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors.

What is performance anxiety?

Sexual performance anxiety is one of the most common sexual complaints. Many males experience self-consciousness, self-criticism, worry, tension, and anxiety during sexual interactions. This ultimately leads to issues like erectile dysfunction, early ejaculation, or trouble having an orgasm. A study has shown that in 9% to 25% of males, performance anxiety is associated with psychogenic ED and premature ejaculation (Pyke 2020).

What causes performance anxiety?

Anxiety and stress can contribute to negative thought patterns and beliefs about one’s sexual performance, leading to increased performance anxiety. This elevated level of anxiety can establish a self-perpetuating cycle where growing concerns about erectile problems worsen the issue even more. Other reasons for performance anxiety may include body image insecurities, lack of emotion, relationship problems, etc. Addressing the common question, "Does masturbation cause erectile dysfunction?" experts generally agree that occasional or moderate masturbation is unlikely to be a direct cause of this condition.

Health conditions that can cause ED, stress, and anxiety.

Both genetic and environmental factors can cause anxiety and stress, eventually leading to ED. Factors like generalized anxiety disorders (long-term anxiety), panic disorders, social anxiety, phobias, posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), etc. can interfere with erection (NIMH 2022). Studies have shown that sexual aversion disorder (secondary to panic disorder) is the most common sexual disorder in patients with panic disorder (Figueira, et al. 2001). Social phobia has been linked with a wide range of sexual dysfunctions, like performance problems, in men (Bodinger, et al 2002). A study has shown that around 80% of subjects with PTSD were experiencing clinically relevant sexual difficulties like impotence and premature ejaculation (Letourneau, et al. 1997). One study determined that psychological state and sleep quality had an impact on premature ejaculation (Demirci. et al. 2003).

Easing stress and anxiety to treat erectile dysfunction

Many individuals are eager to learn what is the latest treatment for erectile dysfunction, as advancements in medical science continually introduce new options for improving sexual health. Routine screening for erectile dysfunction in patients with anxiety and stress disorders is necessary to mitigate this sexual dysfunction. The right psychological assessment and support are key to managing stress and anxiety. A study has shown that men practicing stress management like breathing exercises, muscle relaxation, etc. showed significant improvement in perceived stress and erectile function scores (Kalaitzidou, et al. 2014). Studies have also shown that mindfulness, meditation training, and yoga practices reduce anxiety and stress and, thereby, improve sexual desire and overall reproductive health (Pyke 2020; Sengupta, et al. 2013; Butterfield, et al. 2017). Cognitive behavioral sex therapy (psychosexual counseling) has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of ED when used in combination with PDE-5 inhibitors (Khan, et al. 2017).  Research continues to explore diverse erectile dysfunction causes, ranging from underlying medical conditions to psychological factors, shedding light on comprehensive approaches to management.

Other treatments for erectile dysfunction

Research is ongoing to answer the question, "What is the latest treatment for erectile dysfunction?" with emerging therapies aiming to provide more effective and personalized solutions for individuals facing this condition. Identifying specific erectile dysfunction causes allows healthcare professionals to address the root issues, facilitating more effective interventions for those experiencing difficulties with sexual function. Typically, the treatment of ED aims to restore and maintain an adequate penile erection for sexual intercourse. Let us see other treatment modalities for ED. 

  • Various medicines for erectile dysfunction are available, providing options for individuals seeking effective treatment for this condition. Medicines for erectile dysfunction like PDE-5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, avanafil, etc.) are first-line choices for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (Khera and Goldstein 2011).

  • Topical anesthetic agents have been shown to improve ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction (Xia, et al. 2013).

  • A healthy lifestyle would yield great benefits in alleviating the impact of sexual dysfunction (Maiorino, et al. 2015).

  • Vacuum erection devices and surgery (Segenreich, et al. 1993).

  • Avoiding the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, nicotine, etc. has been suggested to increase male sexual function (Bang-Ping 2009).

  • Interventions like inflatable penile prosthesis, hormone supplementation, and stem cell therapies are among the latest treatments for erectile dysfunction (Nguyen, et al. 2017).

  • Exploring suitable food for erectile dysfunction involves considering a diet rich in nutrients such as antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, and certain vitamins, which may positively impact vascular health and contribute to overall sexual well-being.

Understanding the underlying erectile dysfunction reasons is crucial for effective treatment. Seeking medical guidance is crucial for individuals wondering, "What is erectile dysfunction?" as healthcare professionals can provide information, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment options based on the specific needs of each individual. There are various types of erectile dysfunction that affect men differently. Consulting with healthcare professionals is essential for those seeking information about what is the latest treatment for erectile dysfunction, ensuring access to up-to-date and tailored recommendations based on individual health factors.


Recognizing that anxiety and stress causes ED emphasizes the importance of addressing both mental well-being and physical factors in a comprehensive approach to managing erectile function. An erection is the result of a sequence of physiological events, the first of which is the emotion of sexual excitation, which is largely initiated by the brain. Psychogenic factors like anxiety and stress can impede one’s ability to feel sexual and either cause or exacerbate ED. Many individuals seek clarity on the question, "Does masturbation cause erectile dysfunction?" and current medical knowledge suggests that a healthy sexual practice is not associated with the development of ED. Always keep in mind that experiencing worry or anxiety at this time is quite normal. See your doctor if, after a few weeks, your erection problems persist and your desire for sexual activity is low.


  • Althof S. The psychology of premature ejaculation: therapies and consequences. J Sex Med. 2006 Sep;3 Suppl 4:324-31.

  • American Psychiatric Association (APA). What are Anxiety Disorders? 2023. Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2023).

  • American Psychological Association (APA). Anxiety. American Psychological Association 2022. Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2023).

  • American Psychological Association (APA). Stress. American Psychological Association 2022. Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2023).

  • Bang-Ping J. Sexual dysfunction in men who abuse illicit drugs: a preliminary report. J Sex Med. 2009 Apr;6(4):1072-1080.

  • Bodinger L, et al. Sexual function and behavior in social phobia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Oct;63(10):874-9.

  • Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves weight management drug for patients aged 12 and older. FDA. Published online June 15, 2021. (Accessed on 20 Oct 2023) available from

  • Food and Drug Administration. Ozempic (semaglutide) injection prescribing information, revised. 2020 (Accessed on 20 Oct 2023) available from

  • Butterfield N, et al. Yoga and mindfulness for anxiety and depression and the role of mental health professionals: a literature review. J Ment Health Train Educ Pract. 2017;12:44–54.

  • Demirci A, et al. Erectile dysfunction, anxiety, perceived stress, and insomnia are more common among acquired premature ejaculation patients compared to other premature ejaculation syndromes. Andrology. 2023 Mar;11(3):425-432

  • Figueira I, et al. Sexual dysfunction: a neglected complication of panic disorder and social phobia. Arch Sex Behav. 2001 Aug;30(4):369-77.

  • Kalaitzidou I, et al. Stress management and erectile dysfunction: a pilot comparative study. Andrologia. 2014 Aug;46(6):698-702.

  • Khan S, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy as an adjunct treatment for Pakistani men with ED. Int J Impot Res. 2017 Sep;29(5):202-206.

  • Khera M, Goldstein I. Erectile dysfunction. BMJ Clin Evid. 2011 Jun 29;2011:1803.

  • Kobori Y, et al. The relationship of serum and salivary cortisol levels to male sexual dysfunction as measured by the International Index of Erectile Function. Int J Impot Res. 2009 Jul-Aug;21(4):207-12.

  • Letourneau EJ., et al. Preliminary Evaluation of Sexual Problems in Combat Veterans with PTSD. J Trauma Stress. 1997;10:125–132.

  • Maiorino MI, et al. Lifestyle modifications and erectile dysfunction: what can be expected? Asian J Androl. 2015 Jan-Feb;17(1):5-10.

  • National Institute of Mental Health. Anxiety Disorders. National Institute of Mental Health. Published April 2022. (Accessed: 27 October 2023).

  • Nguyen HMT, et al.. Erectile Dysfunction in Young Men—A Review of the Prevalence and Risk Factors. Sex. Med. Rev. 2017;5:508–520.

  • Pyke RE. Sexual Performance Anxiety. Sex Med Rev. 2020 Apr;8(2):183-190.

  • Rahardjo HE, et al. Is cortisol an endogenous mediator of erectile dysfunction in the adult male? Transl Androl Urol. 2023 May 31;12(5):684-689.

  • Salonia A, et al. European Association of urology guidelines on sexual and reproductive health-2021 update: Male sexual dysfunction. Eur Urol. 2021;80(3):333–57.

  • Segenreich E, et al. [Treatment of erectile dysfunction with vacuum constriction device]. Harefuah. 1993 Mar 15;124(6):326-8, 392.

  • Sengupta P, et al. Male reproductive health and yoga. Int J Yoga. 2013 Jul;6(2):87-95.

  • Shabsigh R, et al. The evolving role of testosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Sep;60(9):1087-92.

  • Thau L, et al. Physiology, Cortisol. [Updated 2022 Aug 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from:

  • Velurajah R, et al. Erectile dysfunction in patients with anxiety disorders: a systematic review. Int J Impot Res. 2022 Mar;34(2):177-186.

  • Xia JD, et al. Efficacy and safety of local anesthetics for premature ejaculation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian J Androl. 2013 Jul;15(4):497-502.

  • Yafi FA, et al. Erectile dysfunction. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2016 Feb 4;2:16003.


Table of Content

    © 2022 Science & Humans. All Rights Reserved.